Native to Madagascar, Mauritius and tropical Africa, harungana is a tropical tree or shrub with small white flowers and fleshy orange-brown fruit. Harungana has the potential to establish extensive stands that exclude native plants and destroy wildlife habitat. It is becoming more common in the rainforests of far north Queensland.

Harungana is a restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014.

Scientific name

Harungana madagascariensis

Other names

Dragon's blood, haronga, orange-blood, orange-milk


  • Tree up to 10-15m tall.
  • Exudes orange, paint-like sap when branches or leaves are broken off.
  • Leaves are dark green, broad, egg-shaped, opposite, 10-20cm long, 6-10cm wide.
  • Flowers are whitish, very small, fragrant, dotted with black glands.
  • Fruits are orange-brown, small, fleshy, 2-3mm, with 2-4 seeds each.


  • Favours watercourses, rainforest edges and roads.
  • In north Queensland, grows on well drained soils and also withstands poor drainage on alluvium.

Distribution in Queensland

  • Found in wetter tropical areas of far north Queensland, particularly near Babinda.

Life cycle

  • Flowers all year, mostly during late spring and early summer.



  • Forms dense thickets from root suckers, excluding all other species.
  • Invades cyclone-damaged rainforest and gaps in rainforest caused by fallen trees or landslips.

How it is spread

  • Seeds spread by animals, water and machinery.
  • Also spread by suckering.


Physical control

  • Do not undertake physical control without subsequent herbicide control as physical disturbance could cause tree to sucker from roots left in soil.

Herbicide control

  • No herbicide currently registered for control in Queensland.
  • An off-label use permit allows use of various herbicides for control of environmental weeds in non-agricultural areas, bushland and forests.
  • Treated areas should be monitored regularly for any new seedlings or regrowth.

See the Harungana fact sheet (PDF, 561KB) for herbicide control and application rates.

Biological control

  • No known biological control agents.

Legal requirements

  • Harungana is a restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014.
  • It must not be given away, sold, or released into the environment without a permit.
  • The Act requires everyone to take all reasonable and practical steps to minimise the risks associated with invasive plants and animals under their control. This is called a general biosecurity obligation (GBO).
  • At a local level, each local government must have a biosecurity plan that covers invasive plants and animals in its area. This plan may include actions to be taken on certain species. Some of these actions may be required under local laws. Contact your local government for more information.

More information