- Medium forest tree, grows 25–35m high.
- Stem grows 0.7–1.0m diameter.
- Trunk is generally straight with good form.
- Crown is well branched and moderately dense.
- Bark is typically thick, stringy and persistent (doesn’t shed) up to the small branches.
- Bark is longitudinally fissured, and grey to brown.
- Common coastal eucalypt and some adjacent tablelands of New South Wales, extending to Yarraman, Queensland.
- Isolated stands in the Carnarvon Range area and the Blackdown Tableland.
- Found on elevated sites in North Queensland from Mt Spec to the Windsor Tableland and north to Cooktown.
- Sawn timber is available.
- Heartwood is mainly light brown and occasionally pale pink.
- Sapwood is paler but not sharply different.
- Generally medium texture and uniform but sometimes interlocked.
- Interlocked grain may produce attractive figure (pattern).
- Engineering: sawn timber used to construct wharves and bridges, railway sleepers, cross arms, poles, piles, mining timbers.
- Construction: sawn timber in general house framing, cladding, internal and external flooring, linings and joinery; also fencing, landscaping and retaining walls.
- Decorative: outdoor furniture, turnery.
- Others: boat building (keel and framing components, planking), coach, vehicle and carriage building, structural plywood.
- Density: 1010kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.0m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S3 unseasoned, SD3 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F8, F11, F14, F17 (unseasoned); F14, F17, F22, F27 (seasoned) when visually stress-graded according to AS 2082-2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded hardwood for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J2 unseasoned, JD1 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: 7.1% (tangential), 3.2% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: 0.36% (tangential), 0.25% (radial)—these values apply to timber reconditioned after seasoning.
- Durability above-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–40 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–25 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: sapwood not susceptible to lyctid borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood readily impregnates with preservative but penetration of heartwood is negligible using available commercial processes.
- Seasoning: satisfactorily dries using conventional air and kiln seasoning.
- Hardness: very hard (rated 1 on a 6-class scale) to indent and working with hand tools.
- Machining: machines and turns well.
- Fixing: no difficulty using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: as with most high-density species, machine and prepare surface immediately before gluing.
- Finishing: readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: very pale brown, lighter than heartwood.
- Heartwood: light brown, occasionally pale pink.
- Texture: medium texture and uniform; grain sometimes interlocked.
- Vessels: solitary, small to medium and numerous; evenly distributed; abundant tyloses; obvious vessel lines on longitudinal surfaces.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): none visible.
- Rays: very fine, barely visible under a lens.
- Burning splinter test: match-size splinter burns to charcoal leaving no ash.
Research and resources
- Boland, DJ, Brooker, MIH, Chippendale, GM, Hall, N, Hyland, BPM, Johnston, RD, Kleinig, DA and Turner, JD 2006, Forest trees of Australia, 5th ed., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018