In Malaysia, some species are mixed with meranti parcels, often shipped as 'Meliaceae'.
- Grows to 30m high on good sites.
- Log diameters of 1m.
- Bole (trunk) is straight and relatively short with steep, plank-like buttresses reaching 1.8m.
- Crown is a dense, deep, dome.
- Ranges from Thailand to Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
- Common in lowland forest and on ridges.
- Heartwood from pink-brown to red-brown.
- Sapwood is distinctly lighter, white to pink-brown in a 25mm wide band.
- Grain is straight or slightly interlocked.
- Texture is moderately coarse.
- Light construction, weatherboards, shingles.
- Furniture, mouldings, joinery, plywood veneer, wall panelling, louvres and shutters.
- Crates, fruit cases.
- Canoe planks and paddles (Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea).
- Density: 555 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.8m3 of seasoned, sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S6 unseasoned, SD6 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F4, F5, F7, F8 (unseasoned), F7, F8, F11, F14 (seasoned), when visually stress-graded according to AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded hardwood for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J4 unseasoned, JD4 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: 6.9% (tangential), 2.9% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: 0.28% (tangential), 0.21% (radial)—these values apply to timber reconditioned after seasoning.
- Durability above-ground: Class 3 (life expectancy 7–15 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 3 (life expectancy 5–15 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood susceptible to lyctine borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: difficult to impregnate with preservatives; results are unsatisfactory.
- Seasoning: slight collapse and some twisting may occur; use weights to minimise distortion; 25–50mm stock will kiln dry relatively easily to 12% moisture content.
- Hardness: soft (rated 5 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: not easy to saw, despite its medium density; machines to a smooth surface.
- Fixing: no difficulty using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: satisfactorily bonds using standard procedures.
- Finishing: seasoned timber surfaces will readily accept stain, polish, or paint.
- Zonate vessel: arrangements occur in some specimens.
- Burning splinter test: match-size splinter burns to white ash.
Research and resources
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018