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- Grows to 20m tall.
- Bark is light to dark grey, rough, and fibrous.
- Bark remains attached on the lower branches.
- Typical 'box-type' bark.
- Widespread and abundant in drier areas of the Australian east coast, ranging from Hay in New South Wales to Rockhampton (20–30°S) in Queensland.
- Common on light-textured red loams, but soils vary.
- Grows on black soil plains.
- Pale brown to dark brown—may depend on the soil type and water available.
- Wavy figure (pattern).
- Fine texture.
- Fence posts and rails.
- Musical instrument-making e.g. xylophones and bagpipes.
- Bush furniture.
- Fuel wood.
- Carbon opportunities.
- Density: 1090kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 0.74m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: (S2) unseasoned, (SD2) seasoned.
- Stress grades: F11, F14, F17, F22 (unseasoned), F17, F22, F27, F34 (seasoned) when visually stress-graded according to AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: JD1 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% moisture content: 4.0% (tangential), 2.8% (longitudinal).
- Unit shrinkage: not available.
- Durability above-ground: Class 1 (life expectancy more than 40 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 1 (life expectancy more than 25 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood susceptible to lyctine borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Seasoning: dries slowly with little degrading.
- Hardness: very hard (rated 1 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: unknown.
- Fixing: wood is moderately fissile (easily split)—be careful when using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: satisfactory.
- Finishing: readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: paler and distinct from heartwood.
- Heartwood: generally deep red but may be lighter in younger growth.
- Texture: uniform, coarse grain, often interlocked; occasional tight gum veins.
- Growth rings: generally absent, but some show vessels arranged in zones.
- Vessels: medium size, solitary, distributed in a diffuse pattern; vessel lines obvious on longitudinal surfaces; contain frequent tyloses and dark-red gum deposits.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): variable amount, not abundant; diffuse and paratracheal.
- Rays: fine, visible only with a lens.
- Burning splinter test: match-size splinter burns to charcoal without ash.
Research and resources
- Boland, DJ, Brooker, MIH, Chippendale, GM, Hall, N, Hyland, BPM, Johnston, RD, Kleinig, DA and Turner, JD 2006, Forest trees of Australia, 5th edn, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood Australia.
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018