- Semi-deciduous tree.
- Grows to 30m high with a spread of 5m.
- Stem grows to 1m diameter.
- Stem is typically buttressed, well-formed and branching.
- Bark is black or grey, tessellated, and fissured.
- Crown is symmetrical.
- Widespread across tropical Australia.
- Occurs from Rockhampton to Cape York, around the Gulf of Carpentaria, across to the Northern Territory and the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
- Heartwood is pale gold to yellowish brown.
- Sapwood is yellow but not always distinct.
- Sometimes interlocked.
- Construction: house framing, flooring, linings, mouldings, scantling.
- Decorative: interior joinery, cabinet making.
- Others: serviette rings, paper weights, rulers, walking sticks.
- Density: 640kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.6m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: (S5) unseasoned, (SD6) seasoned.
- Stress grades: F5, F7, F8, F11 (unseasoned); F7, F8, F11, F14 (seasoned) when visually stress graded according to AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J3 unseasoned, JD3 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: about 6.0% (tangential), 3 to 4% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: not available.
- Durability above-ground: Class 4 (life expectancy less than 7 years).
- Durability-in-ground: Class 4 (life expectancy less than 5 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood susceptible to lyctine borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood impregnates with preservative.
- Seasoning: seasons well.
- Hardness: firm (rated 4 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: relatively easy to work.
- Fixing: no difficulty using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: satisfactorily bonds using standard procedures.
- Finishing: readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: not obviously different from heartwood.
- Heartwood: pale gold to yellow-brown.
- Texture: coarse and uniform, grain very interlocked.
- Vessels: large, clearly visible to the naked eye, solitary and radial groups of 2–3, numerous and uniform distribution; lacks deposits; prominent vessel lines.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): vasicentric, aliform and confluent.
- Rays: fine.
- Burning splinter test: wood burns, with lots of smoke, and exudes resin, to a grey-white ash with black streaks.
Research and resources
- Boland, DJ, Brooker, MIH, Chippendale, GM, Hall, N, Hyland, BPM, Johnston, RD, Kleinig, DA and Turner, JD 2006, Forest trees of Australia, 5th ed., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood Australia.
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018