- Large hardwood to 45m.
- Straight, cylindrical bole (trunk) and well-formed buttresses.
- Bark is grey-brown or dark brown with shallow fissures.
- Logs between 80–100cm diameter.
- Freshly cut trees have a camphor-like odour.
- Occurs in lowland tropical rainforests of Malaysia, Indonesia and South East Asia, often in almost pure stands.
- Sapwood ranges from almost white to yellow-brown and is distinct from the heartwood.
- Heartwood is red or red-brown.
- Grain varies from straight to interlocked or spiral.
- Texture is coarse but even.
- Growth rings are absent.
- Construction: stairways, flooring, general construction.
- Decorative: plywood, furniture, joinery, lining.
- Others: sawn shingles, packing cases, boat building, pallets, tool handles.
- Density: 800kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.3m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S3 unseasoned, SD4 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F8, F11, F14, F17, (unseasoned); F11, F14, F17, F22, (seasoned) when visually stress graded according to AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded hardwood for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J2 unseasoned, JD2 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: about 8% (tangential), 3.5% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: not available.
- Durability above-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–40 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 3 (life expectancy 5–15 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: sapwood is not susceptible to lyctid borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood will impregnate with preservatives.
- Seasoning: slow to dry, usually with very little degrade.
- Hardness: moderately hard (rated 3 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: machines well with moderate blunting of cutting edges caused by the presence of silica.
- Fixing: pre-drill when nailing near extremities, otherwise nails and screws well.
- Gluing: be careful when using urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives.
- Finishing: stains, paints and polishes satisfactorily.
- Sapwood: clearly distinct from heartwood.
- Heartwood: red to red-brown.
- Texture: coarse, uniform; grain varies from straight to interlocked or spiral.
- Vessels: predominantly solitary, medium to large, visible to the unaided eye tyloses are common; vessel lines.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): apotracheal as irregular, spaced, concentric bands and some diffuse strands.
- Rays: fine to medium, visible through lens.
Research and resources
- Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA and Turner JD 2006, Forest trees of Australia, 5th edition, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood Australia.
- Bootle K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018