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- Grows to 30–40m.
- Stem diameter up to 2m.
- Bark is rough and persistent, some stringiness and fibrous.
- Confined to the south west of Western Australia.
- Timber is readily available.
- Heartwood is dark red.
- Sapwood is usually pale yellow.
- Moderately coarse texture and even.
- Wavy, interlocking grain sometimes produces an attractive fiddleback figure (pattern).
- Sawn and round timber used in constructing wharves and bridges, railway sleepers, cross arms, poles, piles.
- Sawn timber in general house framing, flooring, linings, joinery and fencing.
- Not recommended for poles in-ground in pole-frame construction.
- High-quality indoor furniture, turnery, joinery, parquetry flooring, outdoor furniture.
- Used, in the past, for bent work, butcher´s blocks, carriage and vehicle building, mauls, cooperage.
- Density: 835kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.2m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S4 unseasoned, SD4 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F7, F8, F11, F14 (unseasoned); F11, F14, F17, F22 (seasoned), when visually stress-graded according to AS 2082—2000:Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded hardwood for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J2 unseasoned, JD2 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: 7.4% (tangential), 4.8% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: 0.30% (tangential); 0.24% (radial)—these values apply to timber reconditioned after seasoning.
- Durability above-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–40 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–25 years.
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood is susceptible to lyctid borer attack.
- Termite resistance: resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood readily impregnates with preservative but the heartwood can’t be adequately treated using available commercial processes.
- Seasoning: satisfactorily dries using conventional air and kiln seasoning.
- Hardness: hard (rated 2 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: machines and turns well; a planer blade angle of 15° usually gives the best surface quality.
- Fixing: no difficulty using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: satisfactorily bonds using standard procedures.
- Finishing: readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: pale, distinct from heartwood.
- Heartwood: dark red to pink-red, usually darkens with exposure.
- Texture: coarse, uniform, grain usually straight, but may be interlocked.
- Growth rings: mostly absent, but occasionally present as a slight zonate arrangement of thickened fibres.
- Vessels: large to medium, numerous and mainly solitary, but occasionally in oblique arrangements; obvious vessel lines; frequent tyloses; sometimes has dark red gum deposits.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): paratracheal, but not readily visible to the inexperienced observer; not visible without a lens.
- Rays: fine, numerous, not visible without a lens.
- Burning splinter test: match-size splinter burns to charcoal without ash.
- Gum veins: fairly common.
Research and resources
- Boland, DJ, Brooker, MIH, Chippendale, GM, Hall, N, Hyland, BPM, Johnston, RD, Kleinig, DA and Turner, JD 2006, Forest trees of Australia, 5th ed., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018