- Tall tree growing to 45m high.
- Bark covering the trunk is hard and deeply furrowed, contrasting with smooth-barked branches.
- Bark is dark grey to black.
- Occurs in the tablelands, central coastal and south coastal New South Wales.
- Occurs in eastern Victoria and the coastal Gippsland districts.
- Occurs in the north-eastern corner of Tasmania.
- Heartwood is pale brown, sometimes with a pink tinge.
- Sapwood is narrow and indistinguishable.
- Pinhole borer commonly discolours.
- Grain is often interlocked.
- Texture is medium
- Construction: general construction, flooring, panelling.
- Decorative: steam bending, outdoor furniture.
- Others: woodchip for paper production, shingles.
- Density: 820kg/m3 per at 12% moisture content; about 1.2m3 of seasoned, sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S3 unseasoned, SD3 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F8, F11, F14, F17 (unseasoned); F14, F17, F22, F27 (seasoned) when visually stress-graded according to AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: J2 unseasoned, JD2 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: about 10% (tangential), 6% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: not available.
- Durability above-ground: Class 2 (life expectancy 15–40 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 3 (life expectancy 5–15 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood is not susceptible to lyctid borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood will impregnate with preservative.
- Seasoning: more difficult to season without degrade than the Tasmanian oaks, and dries slower; collapse is significant and reconditioning is desirable.
- Hardness: hard (rated 2 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: machines well.
- Fixing: no difficulty using standard fittings and fastenings.
- Gluing: satisfactorily bonds using standard procedures.
- Finishing: readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: light brown, and not distinct from the heartwood.
- Heartwood: pale brown with occasional gum veins and/or flecks, sometimes with pink tints.
- Texture: moderately open, growth rings may be visible, grain may be interlocked.
- Vessels: medium to small, solitary, tyloses, obvious vessel lines.
- Parenchyma (soft tissue): not visible with hand lens.
- Rays: fine, visible as a darker fleck on radial surfaces.
- Burning splinter test: match-size splinter burns to charcoal with no ash.
Research and resources
- Boland, DJ, Brooker, MIH, Chippendale, GM, Hall, N, Hyland, BPM, Johnston, RD, Kleinig, DA and Turner, JD 2006, Forest Trees of Australia, 5th ed., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
- Bootle, K 2005, Wood in Australia: Types, properties and uses, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathust, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Australian Standard International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018