Durio spp., Neesia spp., Bombax spp., Coelostegia spp., Kostermansia spp. Family: Bombaceae
Derian; duriat; dian; dulian; dulen; rulen; durene; tureno; turian; jatu; kadu (Indonesia); punggai (Malaysia); bengang (Neesia spp., Sarawak)
- Grows to 40m.
- Clear bole (trunk) to 25m and 1–2m diameter.
- Rough bark varies from brown to dark red, and sheds at irregular intervals.
- Many species have low buttresses.
- Occurs throughout Burma, Malaysia and Indonesia.
- Many areas harvest the durian fruit every October/November (which, despite its offensive smell, is considered a delicacy).
- Ash of the fruit rind is used for bleaching silk.
- Small quantities are imported to Australia.
- Heartwood is pink-brown to deep, red-brown.
- Sapwood is lighter coloured and distinct in most species.
- Varies between species from straight to interlocked.
- Texture is coarse and often uneven.
- Construction: light construction, plywood.
- Decorative: furniture, joinery, panelling, veneer.
- Others: clogs.
- Density: 575–640kg/m3 at 12% moisture content; about 1.6–1.8m3 of seasoned sawn timber per tonne.
- Strength groups: S4 unseasoned, SD4 seasoned.
- Stress grades: F7, F8, F11, F14 (unseasoned); F11, F14, F17, F22 (seasoned) when visually stress-graded in accordance with AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes.
- Joint groups: JD4 seasoned.
- Shrinkage to 12% MC: shrinkage varies between species—Durio spp. about 4.0% (tangential) and 3.0% (radial); Neesia spp. about 2.0% (tangential) and 1.0% (radial).
- Unit shrinkage: not available.
- Durability above-ground: Class 4 (life expectancy less than 7 years).
- Durability in-ground: Class 4 (life expectancy less than 5 years).
- Lyctine susceptibility: untreated sapwood is susceptible to lyctid borer attack.
- Termite resistance: not resistant.
- Preservation: sapwood readily impregnates with preservatives.
- Seasoning: seasons rapidly but has a tendency to cup; use weights and close sticker spacings to minimise degrade.
- Hardness: firm (rated 4 on a 6-class scale) to indent and work with hand tools.
- Machining: machines well; however, turning produces a slightly rough surface.
- Fixing: nails well.
- Gluing: satisfactorily bonds using standard procedures.
- Finishing: seasoned timber readily accepts paint, stain and polish.
- Sapwood: white to pale pink-brown, distinct from heartwood.
- Heartwood: pink-brown to deep red-brown.
- Texture: medium to coarse.
- Vessels: radial multiples of 2–3, tending to oval, visible to naked eye.
- Rays: prominent on quarter.
- Texture: some species are greasy to touch.
- Odour: characteristic unpleasant odour when freshly sawn.
Research and resources
- Ilic, J 1991, CSIRO atlas of hardwoods, Crawford House Press, Bathurst, Australia.
- Queensland Government, DAF 2018, Construction timbers in Queensland: Properties and specifications for satisfactory performance of construction timbers in Queensland. Class 1 and Class 10 buildings, Books 1 & 2, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane.
- Standards Australia, 2000, AS 2082—2000: Timber—Hardwood—Visually stress-graded for structural purposes, Standards Australia International, Strathfield, NSW.
- Last reviewed: 12 Dec 2018
- Last updated: 12 Dec 2018