© Queensland Government
© Queensland Government
© US Department of Agriculture Creative Commons
There are 2 species of varroa mite, the Varroa destructor and the Varroa jacobsoni. These mites are tiny, the size of a pinhead, and they are a parasite of honey bees.
Varroa mite numbers build up over time, eventually killing honey bee nests and hives if chemical mite killers or other management strategies are not applied. Bee colony death affects honey production and pollination of food crops.
Varroa destructor affects Asian honey bees and European honey bees. They have been found in much of Asia, Europe, the USA, South America and New Zealand. Varroa destructor is responsible for the collapse and death of European honey bee colonies wherever it is present. Adult bees are weakened by mites sucking on them, and new bees are born with deformities.
Varroa jacobsoni has a wide distribution on Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia and Asian honey bees are the natural host of Varroa jacobsoni. These mites do not normally reproduce on European honey bees, however they have recently been observed reproducing on European honey bees at some overseas locations, raising concerns that the same may happen in Australia.
The varroa mite is listed as prohibited matter under the Biosecurity Act 2014.
- Varroa, bee mite
- Curved, pinhead-sized mite.
- Adult females are reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, with body 1–1.7mm long and 1.5–1.99mm wide.
- Adult males are yellowish, spherical, with body 0.75–0.98mm long and 0.70–0.88mm wide.
- May be seen on thorax or nestled into abdominal folds of adult bees.
- Obligate parasites of honey bees and do not survive for long away from host.
- Live wherever bee colonies are found. Australia is currently the only inhabited continent in the world to be free of varroa mite.
- Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) have adapted to withstand varroa mite infestation and are now a natural host.
- Varroa jacobsoni has been detected in Townsville, Queensland. A National Varroa Mite Eradication Program is established and will continue until June 2021.
- Varroa could spread across the country by the movement of infested bees.
- Honey bees
- Debilitates and eventually kills bee colonies, reducing managed and feral honey bee populations.
- Potential to severely affect honey production.
- Potential to severely affect a wide range of pollination-reliant food crops and crops that support primary food production.
- Early detection is essential to ensure any Varroa mites entering Australia are contained.
- The Australian Government monitors cargo ships entering Australian ports for bees and other unwanted insect pests. If you find a swarm in an international airport or seaport, contact the See. Secure. Report. hotline on 1800 798 636 or Biosecurity Queensland on 13 25 23.
- The National Bee Pest Surveillance Program acts as an early warning system to detect new incursions of exotic bee pests and pest bees by monitoring locations considered to be most likely entry points throughout Australia.
- All beekeepers should monitor their hives and immediately report unexpected hive deaths, deformed bees, bees with parasites, poor brood patterns and dead brood to Biosecurity Queensland.
- Beekeepers can conduct their own varroa mite surveillance and record results of assessments using the online hive surveillance portal.
- Varroa mite is prohibited matter under the Biosecurity Act 2014 (the Act).
- The Act requires that all sightings be reported to Biosecurity Queensland without delay. A person that has sighted the pest must also ensure that they do not take any action that may exacerbate the risk of the pest spreading.
- By law, everyone has a general biosecurity obligation (GBO) to take all reasonable and practical steps to minimise the risk of Varroa mite entering and establishing itself in Queensland.
- Last reviewed: 12 Aug 2021
- Last updated: 12 Aug 2021