Foot-and-mouth disease


Foot-and-mouth disease is prohibited matter under the Biosecurity Act 2014.

Under Queensland legislation, if you suspect the presence of this disease in any species of animal, you must report it to Biosecurity Queensland on 13 25 23 or contact the Emergency Disease Watch Hotline on 1800 675 888.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an exotic disease that does not occur in Australia. Under Queensland legislation all suspect cases must be reported to Biosecurity Queensland.


A picornavirus. There are 7 distinct serotypes of FMD virus: O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1.

Other names

  • FMD


A highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hooved animals (the hooves are divided into 2 parts). Horses are not affected.


FMD has not occurred in Australia since 1872. It is found in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and South America.


Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, camelids, deer, buffalo, elephants

Life cycle

For the purposes of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the incubation period is 14 days.

Affected animals

  • cattle
  • sheep
  • pigs
  • goats
  • deer
  • camelids
  • buffalo
  • elephants

Clinical signs

A wide range of signs can occur, ranging from inapparent disease with minimal lesions to severe clinical disease. It is extremely contagious and many animals on a farm may become affected simultaneously.

In cattle

  • Cattle may have a high temperature and vesicles (blisters) occur on the feet and in the mouth.
  • Excessive salivation, drooling and lameness are frequently observed.
  • Vesicles may also occur on the teats and udder making milking painful.
  • Most diseased animals will recover in about 2 weeks. Mortality is normally less than 5%, but may be high in young animals.

In pigs

  • The main sign is lameness, although this can be masked if the affected animals are on soft ground.
  • Blisters form around the top of the foot, on the heels and between the claws.

In sheep and goats

  • The disease is usually mild with few lesions, though severely affected animals can succumb to sudden, severe lameness affecting one or more feet.


An outbreak of this disease in Australia could have serious and prolonged social and economic impacts:

  • Sheep, wool, beef, pork and dairy industries, the agricultural service sector and agribusiness would be adversely impacted and access to major export markets would be lost for several years.
  • Businesses along the supply chain, including equipment suppliers, feed suppliers and livestock transporters would also be affected due to the impact on their customers in the affected animal industries.
  • Other industry sectors including tourism, food and hospitality sectors would also be affected.

The 2013 ABARES research report (PDF, 1.3MB) estimates that a large multi-state FMD incident could cost Australia more than $52 billion in lost revenue over 10 years.

How it is spread

Transmission method

FMD is one of the most contagious animal diseases. Infected animals excrete the virus in fluid from ruptured blisters, exhaled air, saliva, milk, semen, faeces and urine. Virus transmission can begin before blisters appear.

The primary method of transmission within herds and flocks is by direct contact or via respiratory particles and droplets. Pigs are potent excretors of airborne viruses. Spread of infection between properties and areas is frequently due to movement of infected animals or contaminated vehicles, equipment, people and products. Windborne spread of infected aerosols can occur under the right conditions.

Risk of entry into Australia

Human-assisted pathways for the introduction of FMD into Australia include the importation of:

  • contaminated livestock products and by-products, including genetic material
  • contaminated equipment and clothing
  • infected livestock.

Because Australia has strict import conditions in place, the introduction of FMD through the legal importation of these commodities is very unlikely. However, the illegal introduction of contaminated meat and dairy products that could be brought in by passengers on aircraft or ships, or sent through the post, has been demonstrated to be a real and significant pathway.

Feeding or providing susceptible animals access to contaminated materials is the most likely means by which FMD may infect the animal population. Accordingly, the feeding of animal matter or feed that has been contaminated by animal matter (i.e. also known as swill) is illegal in Australia.

Windborne spread to Australia from infected near neighbouring countries, is considered possible but of low likelihood due to the distance and prevailing weather conditions.

Risk period

FMD virus may remain infective in the environment for several weeks to months:

  • in the presence of organic matter, such as soil, manure and dried animal secretions
  • on chemically inert materials, such as straw, hair and leather.

Although the virus is inactivated within 3 days in carcasses that have undergone normal post-slaughter acidification, it can remain viable for months in chilled lymph nodes, bone marrow, viscera and blood clots. The virus have been detected in the milk and semen of experimentally infected cattle for 23 and 56 days, respectively.

Monitoring and action

Suspect cases of FMD will be investigated by a veterinary team. Where appropriate, samples of vesicular fluid, epithelial tags and blood will be collected from representative animals and forwarded to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness at Geelong for diagnostic purposes.


If the disease is detected, it will be contained and eradicated as quickly as possible in order to reinstate Australia's disease-free status for trade purposes. The eradication program will be delivered according to the AUSVETPLAN response strategy for FMD.

Emergency Vaccination

Emergency vaccination may, in certain circumstances, be an important part of controlling an FMD outbreak. Australia will consider the potential for emergency vaccination as part of the response strategy from the day an incursion of FMD is detected. Queensland has an FMD vaccination strategy that will assist when deciding whether emergency vaccination should be used during an outbreak.


The following will occur if FMD is detected:

  • immediate assessment of the epidemiological situation
  • rapid recognition and laboratory confirmation of cases
  • strict movement controls, including an immediate livestock standstill
  • implementation of legislated declared areas for disease control purposes including movement controls and surveillance
  • proactive management of animal welfare issues that arise from the disease or the implementation of disease control measures
  • valuation, destruction and sanitary disposal of infected animals and animal products
  • decontamination of facilities, products and things to limit the spread of the virus
  • tracing and surveillance to determine the source and extent of infection (including, as necessary, in feral animals), and to provide proof-of-freedom
  • surveillance and control of feral animal populations, as appropriate. Hunting may be banned in some areas
  • recalling potentially contaminated animal products (including dairy products for animal consumption, etc.), unless considered unnecessary by a risk assessment
  • relief and recovery programs to minimise animal welfare and human socio-economic issues
  • a public information campaign
  • industry engagement to provide technical expertise and improve understanding of the emergency animal disease response process, facilitate cooperation and address animal welfare issues.

Further information