Laws against supplying and feeding prohibited feed to pigs
Legislation in all Australian states and territories, including Queensland's Biosecurity Act 2014, outlaws feeding prohibited feed for pigs and poultry (swill) to pigs. This applies to all pigs, including pet pigs and pigs owned by hobby farmers. Penalties for swill feeding include fines and imprisonment.
Swill may contain viruses that cause serious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever that can be passed on to pigs that are fed swill. For this reason, swill must not be fed to pigs.
For similar reasons, you must also not feed swill to poultry.
This guide for pig owners and food outlets explains what you can and can't feed to pigs.
Prohibited feed for pigs and poultry–swill
Swill is material that:
- contains, or may contain, the carcass of a mammal or bird
- contains, or may contain, material derived from a mammal or bird (including meat, eggs, blood, faeces)
- has been in contact with either of these (including food or food scraps from a restaurant, hotel or home that may have been in contact with meat or meat products or other material derived from a mammal or bird).
Some exceptions are permitted. Animal materials that are not swill and can legally be fed to pigs are:
- products rendered in accordance with the current Australian standard for the hygienic rendering of animal products
- used cooking oil that was used for cooking in Australia and has been collected and processed in accordance with the National standard for recycling of used cooking fats and oils intended for animal feeds
- milk of Australian origin or milk lawfully imported into Australia as feed for livestock
- milk products or milk by-products made in Australia and derived from milk of Australian origin or a milk product lawfully imported into Australia as feed for livestock.
Food that must not be fed to pigs
Food waste from various sources could contain swill. Household, supermarket, commercial or industrial waste, including restaurant food, butcher shop waste and bakery waste, could contain banned items.
Do not feed these foods to pigs:
- table scraps that contain swill
- meat pies
- sausage rolls
- bacon and cheese rolls
- Caesar salad with bacon pieces
- deli meats
- milk or milk products not of Australian origin (unless imported as feed for livestock)
- untreated used cooking oils and fats
- anything that has been in contact with swill through collection, storage or transport in contaminated containers (such as meat trays or takeaway food containers).
Food that can be fed to pigs
Legally, you can feed pigs:
- milk or milk products of Australian origin or legally imported into Australia as feed for livestock
- bakery or vegetable scraps that do not contain, and have had no contact with, eggs, meat or meat products
- fruit, vegetables and cereals
- meals made from meat, blood or bone that have been purchased from a reputable produce store or feed merchant (look for feed produced by an accredited feed supplier under a quality assurance program such as FeedSafe®)
- rendered animal fat and treated cooking oils in accordance with Queensland's Biosecurity Act 2014.
Remember, it is best to only feed your pigs commercially available pig feed.
Risks of swill feeding
Swill can contain a range of harmful viruses that could cause foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or African swine fever (ASF). Many of these viruses can remain viable in food even after chilling, freezing or inadequate cooking.
FMD is a serious, highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, including:
- livestock such as cattle, pigs, sheep and goats
- camelids such as alpacas, llamas and camels.
Swill feeding is believed to have caused the devastating 2001 outbreak of FMD in the United Kingdom, where more than 6 million animals were destroyed in eradicating the disease.
Australia is currently free from FMD, but the disease is present in some nearby countries. The most likely way for the virus to enter Australia would be through illegally imported meat and dairy products.
FMD can cause major production losses and trade impacts. A recent study (PDF, 1.3MB) estimated that a large, multi-state FMD outbreak could cost Australia more than $52 billion in lost revenue over 10 years.
Swill can also contain other significant viruses not currently found in Australia.
Learn more about the dangers of swill feeding in this short FMD video.
Responsible disposal of food waste
Businesses that prepare and sell food have a responsibility to dispose of food waste safely.
Food waste considered swill should be placed in an appropriate waste bin for collection and disposal.
Learn more about responsible disposal of food waste in this short FMD video.
Report swill feeding or possible disease
Contact Biosecurity Queensland on 13 25 23 if you suspect that:
- swill is being supplied to pig owners
- pigs are being fed swill
- your pigs are showing any clinical signs of FMD or ASF.
Suspected cases of FMD or ASF can also be reported to the Emergency Animal Disease Watch Hotline on 1800 675 888.
- Read more FMD information for livestock owners.
- Read more about African swine fever.
- Visit our playlist of community education FMD videos.
- Download a fact sheet about foot and mouth disease (PDF, 732KB).
- Download a fact sheet for pig owners about what to feed pigs (PDF, 769KB).
- Download a fact sheet about anti-swill feeding for food outlets (PDF. 706KB) (also available in Chinese (PDF, 706KB) and Vietnamese (PDF, 706KB)).
- Last reviewed: 21 Nov 2019
- Last updated: 21 Nov 2019